PSYCH-EDUCATIONAL PROJECT:

Christine has identified a need for increased awareness regarding factors influencing healthy childhood development through her work with children and families within the Port Elizabeth community. She has implemented a psych-educational project, in collaboration with local Primary Schools, in order to address this need.

The project involves the distribution of informative articles, via internal school publications, on a monthly basis. Each article focuses on a particular topic and aims to provide parents, caregivers and school staff members with valuable information regarding some of the social, emotional and psychological factors which impact on childhood development.

THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTHY PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT:

                                                                                              Download - Article 1- The Importance of Healthy Parental  Involvement

References:

     •  Olsen, G. & Fuller, M.L. (2010). The Benefits of Parent Involvement: What Research Has to Say. Pearson Allyn Bacon Prentice Hall. Retrieved from
         http://www.education.com/reference/article/benefits-parent-involvement-research/
     •  Dunnewind, S. (2004). Parent overinvolvement can hurt children. Retrieved from http://www.cyc-net.org/features/viewpoints/c-overinvolvement.html
     •  Enterprise City Schools (2015). Why is Parental Involvement Important? What Research Says about Parent Involvement in Children’s Education In Relation to Academic
         Achievement. Retrieved from http://www.enterpriseschools.net/?PN=Pages&SubP=Level1Page&L=1&DivisionID=3864&PageID=7105&ToggleSideNav=ShowAll

Links to More Information on this Topic:

     •  Bayless, K. (2015). What is Helicopter Parenting? Retrieved from http://www.parents.com/parenting/better-parenting/what-is-helicopter-parenting/
     •  Fraser-Thill, R. (2015). How Parent Involvement Benefits Kids: Why Parents Should Get Involved With Kids’ Schoolwork. Retrieved from
        http://tweenparenting.about.com/od/educationissues/a/School-Involvement.htm
     •  Ipatenco, S. (2015). The Benefits of Parental Involvement in a Child’s Development.
         Retrieved from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/benefits-parental-involvement-childs-development-1289.html



SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS IN CHILDREN:

                                                                                             Download - Article 2- Signs of Symptoms of Emotional Distress in Children
References:

     •  The Psychology Foundation of Canada (2015). Kids Have Stress Too! Ideas, Tips and Strategies for Parents of Preschoolers.
         Retrieved from http://www.psychologyfoundation.org/pdf/KHST_Booklet_for_Parents.pdf
     •  American Psychological Association (2015). Identifying Signs of Stress in your Children and Teens. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-children.aspx

Links to More Information on this Topic:

     •  The Nemours Foundation (2015). Childhood Stress. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/feelings/stress.html
     •  American Academy of Pediatrics (2015). Helping Children Handle Stress.
         Retrieved from http://www.healthychildren.org/English/healthy-living/emotional-wellness/Pages/Helping-Children-Handle-Stress.aspx
     •  Scholastic Inc. (2015). 8 Warning Signs that Your Child is Under Too Much Stress.
         Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/parents/resources/article/social-emotional-skills/8-warning-signs-your-child-under-too-much-stress



WHEN IS IT BULLYING?

                                                                                              Download Article 3 - When is it Bullying

References:

     •  Parent Further (2015). Is it Bullying? Retrieved from http://www.parentfurther.com/high-risk-behaviors/bullying/definition
     •  Gordon, S. (2004). Bullying or Unkind Behaviour? How to Know the Difference.
         Retrieved from http://bullying.about.com/od/Basics/a/Bullying-Or-Unkind-Behavior-How-To-Know-The-Difference.htm
     •  Baras, R. (2015). Bullying (3): What Bullying is NOT. Retrieved from http://www.ronitbaras.com/series-posts/bullying-2/

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Pacer’s National Bullying Prevention Centre (2015). Bullying Info and Facts. Retrieved from http://www.pacer.org/bullying/resources/info-facts.asp
     •  Keeping Safe-Growing Strong (2015). Retrieved from http://rms.rrdsb.com/sites/rms.rrdsb.com/files/What%20is%20bullying%20What%20is%20not%20bullying.pdf
     •  British Columbia Ministry of Education (2015). Bullying vs Conflict. Retrieved from http://www.erasebullying.ca/bullying/bullying-vs.php



CHILDREN AND TECHNOLOGY: SETTING APPROPRIATE LIMITS

                                                                                             Download Article 4 - Setting Appropriate Limits

References:

     •  Lyness, D. (2014). Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/family/tv_habits.html
     •  Discovery Health (2014). Healthy Active Kids South Africa Report Card 2014.
         Retrieved from https://www.discovery.co.za/discovery_coza/web/linked_content/pdfs/vitality/parenting/healthy_active_kids_report_card_2014.pdf
     •  Mayo Clinic (2015). Children and TV: Limiting your child’s screen time.
         Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/children-and-tv/art-20047952?pg=2
     •  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2015). Screen time and children. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000355.htm

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Tartakovsky, M. (2013). Technology Running Your Home? 7 Tips For Limiting Kids’ Screen Time. Psych Central.
         Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2013/07/26/technology-running-your-home-7-tips-for-limiting-kids-screen-time/
     •  The Nemors Foundation (2015). How TV Affects Your Child. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/family/tv_affects_child.html
     •  Rettner, R. (2015). Kids’ Screen Time May Affect Their Well-Being (STUDY).
         Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/18/screen-time--linked-to-kids-well-being_n_4987600.html



SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LEARNING DIFFICULTIES IN CHILDREN:

                                                                                             Download Article 5 - SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LEARNING DIFFICULTIES IN CHILDREN

References:

     •  Kemp, G., Smith, M. & Segal, J. (2015). Learning Disabilities and Disorders: Types of Learning Disorders and Their Signs.
         Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/learning-disabilities/learning-disabilities-and-disorders.htm
     •  National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2015). What are the indicators of learning disabilities?
         Retrieved from   https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/learning/conditioninfo/pages/symptoms.aspx

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2015). Children with Learning Disorders.
         Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Children_With_Learning_Disabilities_16.aspx
     •  Learning Disabilities Association of America (2015). Types of Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/
     •  American Academy of Pediatrics (2015). Types of Learning Problems.
         Retrieved from http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/learning-disabilities/Pages/Types-of-Learning-Problems.aspx
     •  The Nemours Foundation (2015). Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/learning/learning_disabilities.html#



HELICOPTER PARENTING

                                                                                             Download Article 6 - HELICOPTER PARENTING

References:

     •  Bayless, K. (2015). What Is Helicopter Parenting? Retrieved from http://www.parents.com/parenting/better-parenting/what-is-helicopter-parenting/
     •  Morin, A. (2015). Helicopter Parents: Do they Help or Hurt Kids?
         Retrieved from http://discipline.about.com/od/typesofdiscipline/a/Helicopter-Parents-Do-They-Help-Or-Hurt-Kids.htm

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Fontaine, K. (2015). The Risks of being a Helicopter Parent.
         Retrieved from http://www.kidspot.com.au/Toddler-Development-The-risks-of-being-a-helicopter-parent+5989+26+article.htm
     •  Pincus, D. (2015). How to Stop Worrying and Avoid Helicopter parenting.
         Retrieved from http://www.empoweringparents.com/how-to-stop-worrying-and-avoid-helicopter-parenting-dont-do-these-6-things.php
     •  Wolf, J. (2015). 10 Ways to Stop being a Helicopter Parent: How to Step Back and let your Kids Grow.
         Retrieved from http://singleparents.about.com/od/discipline/a/stop-being-a-helicopter-parent.htm
     •  Scolnik, D. (2015). How to Stop Helicopter Parenting. Retrieved from http://www.parenting.com/article/helicopter-parenting



THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY:

                                                                                             Download Article 7 - THE IMPORTANCE OF PLAY

References:

     •  The American Academy of Pediatrics (2013). The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Stong Parent-Child Bonds.
         Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/119/1/182.full
     •  Bilich, K. (2015). The Importance of Play. Retrieved from http://www.parents.com/fun/sports/exercise/the-importance-of-play/
     •  Alex Toys (2015). Six Benefits of Free Play for Children. Retrieved from http://www.alextoys.com/blog/lets-play/six-benefits-of-free-play-for-children/

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Isenberg, J.P. & Jalongo, M.R. (2014). Why is Play Important? Social and Emotional Development, Physical Development, Creative Development.
         Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/importance-play--social-emotional/
     •  National Literacy Trust (2015). 10 Reasons why Play is Important.
         Retrieved from http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/talk_to_your_baby/news/2332_10_reasons_why_play_is_important
     •  Scholastic Inc (2015). Make Way for Play. http://www.scholastic.com/parents/resources/article/creativity-play/make-way-play



UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION:

                                                                                             Download Article 8 - UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION

References:

     •  About Education (2015). What is the Difference Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation?
         Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/motivation/f/difference-between-extrinsic-and-intrinsic-motivation.htm
     •  Vanderbilt University: Centre for Teaching (2011). Motivating Students. Retrieved from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/teaching-guides/interactions/motivating-students/

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Empowering Parents (2015). Unmotivated Child? 6 Ways to Get your Child Going.
         Retrieved from http://www.empoweringparents.com/Unmotivated-Child-6-Ways-to-Get-Your-Child-Going.php
     •  NASP Resources (2015). Motivating Learning in Young Children. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/home_school/earlychildmotiv_ho.aspx
     •  Parents (2015). 6 Ways to Motivate Your Kids. Retrieved from http://www.parents.com/kids/development/behavioral/motivate-your-kids/



SETTING SMART GOALS WITH CHILDREN:

                                                                                             Download Article 9 - SETTING SMART GOALS WITH CHILDREN

References:

     •  Morin, A. (2016). Setting Back to School Goals: Helping your Kids Manage the New School Year.
         Retrieved from http://kidsactivities.about.com/od/LifeSkills/a/Tips-For-Setting-Learning-Goals.htm
     •  Fishwah (2013). The Benefits of Goal setting for Kids. Retrieved from http://fishwah.com/benefits-of-goal-setting-for-kids/
     •  Melborne Child Psychology and School Psychology Services (2015). Succesful Goal Setting for Kids.
         Retrieved from https://www.melbournechildpsychology.com.au/blog/successful-goal-setting-for-children/

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Gross, G. (2014). Teaching Children Confidence through Goal Setting. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-gail-gross/teaching-children-confide_b_4565356.html
     •  Activity Village (2016). Goal Setting. Retrieved from http://www.activityvillage.co.uk/goal-setting
     •  Time Management Success (2016). Goal Setting for Children- Why it Matters and How to Help Them Do It.
         Retrieved from http://www.time-management-success.com/goal-setting-for-children.html



THE FOUR TYPES OF PARENTING STYLES:

                                                                                             Download Article 10 -THE FOUR TYPES OF PARENTING STYLES

References:

     •  McGraw, P. (2004). Family First: Your Parenting Style. Retrieved from http://www.drphil.com/articles/print/?ArticleID=154
     •  Walton, S. (2012). Types of Parenting Styles. Retrieved from http://www.the-positive-parenting-centre.com/types_of_parenting_styles.html
     •  Cherry, K. (2015). Parenting Styles: The Four Styles of Parenting. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/parenting-style.htm

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Dewar, G. (2010). Parenting Styles: A Guide for the Science-Minded. Retrieved from http://www.parentingscience.com/parenting-styles.html
     •  Rosenthal, M. (2009). Parenting Styles: What Works and What Doesn’t. Retrieved from http://theattachedfamily.com/?p=2151
     •  Sailor, D.H. (2010). Effects of Parenting Styles on Children’s Behaviour. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/effect-parenting-styles-children-behavior/



THE DANGERS OF PARENTAL ANXIETY:

                                                                                             Download Article 11 - THE DANGERS OF PARENTAL ANXIETY

References:

     •  Newman, S. (2015). 8 Tips to Ease Parental Anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/singletons/201502/8-tips-ease-parental-anxiety
     •  Kennard, J. (2012). 7 Ways Parenting Styles Affect Child Anxiety. Retrieved from http://www.healthcentral.com/anxiety/c/4182/154012/parenting-anxiety/
     •  The Anxiety Support Network (2011). Causes of Anxiety: Over Protective and Controlling Parents.
         Retrieved from http://www.anxietysupportnetwork.com/articles/causes_of_anxiety_overprotective_and_overcontrolling_parents.php

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Hewitt, D. (2015). Side Effects of Overprotective Parenting. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/48744-side-effects-overprotective-parenting/
     •  Scottsdale, B (2016). The Psychological Effects of Strict and Overprotective Parents.
         Retrieved from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/psychological-effects-strict-overprotective-parents-15121.html
     •  Kruger, P. (2016). The Anxious Parent. Retrieved from http://www.parents.com/baby/new-parent/emotions/anxious-parent/



CHILDRENS’ LEARNING STYLES:

                                                                                             Download Article 12 -CHILDRENS’ LEARNING STYLES

References

     •  Learning-Styles-Online.com (2016). Overview of Learning Styles. Retrieved from http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/
     •  Teach.com (2016). Learning Styles: All students are created equally (and differently). Retrieved from http://teach.com/what/teachers-teach/learning-styles
     •  Baker, F. (2016). Learning Styles in Children. Retrieved from http://www.kidspot.com.au/school/primary/learning-and-behaviour/learning-styles-in-children
     •  Graham, E. (2016). What is Your Child’s Learning Style? Retrieved from http://www.schoolfamily.com/school-family-articles/article/826-what-is-your-childs-learning-style

Links to more information on this topic

     •  The Centre for Learning at Addlestone Library (2016). Learning Styles: The Four Modalities.
         Retrieved from http://web.peralta.edu/dualenrollment/files/2016/03/learning_styles_the_four_modalities.pdf
     •  University of Illinois Extension (2016). Helping Children Succeed in School. Retrieved from http://extension.illinois.edu/succeed/learningstyles.cfm
     •  The VARK Questionnaire for Younger People (2016). Retrieved from http://vark-learn.com/the-vark-questionnaire/the-vark-questionnaire-for-younger-people/



SHYNESS VERSUS SOCIAL ANXIETY:

                                                                                            Download Article 13 -SHYNESS VERSUS SOCIAL ANXIETY

References:

     •  The Nemours Foundation (2016). Social Phobia. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/social-phobia.html
     •  Child Mind Institute (2016). When to worry about an anxious child. Retrieved from http://childmind.org/article/when-to-worry-about-an-anxious-child/
     •  Hauser, J. (2016). Shyness and Social Phobia in Children. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/shyness-and-social-phobia-in-children/
     •  Anxiety BC (2016). Social Anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.anxietybc.com/parenting/social-anxiety-disorder
     •  Centre for Emotional Health (2016). Social Phobia in Kids. Retrieved from http://www.centreforemotionalhealth.com.au/pages/resources-social-phobia.aspx

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Child Mind Institute (2016). What is Social Anxiety? Retrieved from http://www.centreforemotionalhealth.com.au/pages/resources-social-phobia.aspx
     •  Mayo Clinic (2016). Social anxiety disorder (social phobia).
         Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/social-anxiety-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20032524
     •  Helpguide.Org (2016). Social Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder-and-social-phobia.htm



PUNISHMENT VERSUS DISCIPLINE:

                                                                                             Download Article 14 - PUNISHMENT VERSUS DISCIPLINE

References:

     •  College of Education + Human Development (2009). What’s the Difference between Discipline and Punishment?
         Retrieved from http://www.cehd.umn.edu/ceed/publications/questionsaboutkids/disciplineenglish.pdf
     •  Childwise Chat (2009). Discipline vs. punishment. Retrieved from http://www.childwisechat.com/2009/12/04/discipline-vs-punishment/
     •  Virginia State University (2009). Discipline and Punishment: What is the Difference? Retrieved from https://www.ucy.ac.cy/nursery/documents/ThemaVdomadas/_-_Νηπ.pdf

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Gunderson National Child Protection Training Centre (2016). Difference between Discipline and punishment.
         Retrieved from http://www.gundersenhealth.org/ncptc/center-for-effective-discipline/discipline-at-home/resources-for-parents/discipline-punishment
     •  D.H. Sailor (2010). Supporting Children in their Home, School, and Community: Discipline and Punishment.
         Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/discipline-punishment/
     •  Positive Parenting (2013). 8 Ways Discipline and Punishment are not the same. Retrieved from http://positiveparenting.com/discipline-punishment/


HEALTHY SLEEP HABITS FOR CHILDREN:

                                                                                            Download Article 15 - HEALTHY SLEEP HABITS FOR CHILDREN

References:

     •  National Sleep Foundation (2017). Excessive Sleepiness. Retrieved from https://sleepfoundation.org/excessivesleepiness/content/how-much-sleep-do-babies-and-kids-need
     •  American Academy of Paediatrics (2016). Healthy Sleep Habits: How many Hours does your Child Need? Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/healthy-living/sleep/Pages/Healthy-Sleep-Habits-How-Many-Hours-Does-Your-Child-Need.aspx
     •  Cleveland Clinic (2016). Healthy Sleep Habits for Children. Retrieved from http://my.clevelandclinic.org/childrens-hospital/health-info/diseases-conditions/hic_sleep_in_your_babys_first_year/hic_Healthy_Sleep_Habits_for_Children

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  About Kids Health (2017). Growing Consequences of not enough sleep. Retrieved from http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/En/News/NewsAndFeatures/Pages/Growing-consequences-of-not-enough-sleep.aspx
     •  American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2017). Top 10 Healthy Sleep Habits for Children and Teens. Retrieved from http://school.sleepeducation.com/resources/Top10HealthySleepHabits.pdf
     •  Kids Health (2017). What Sleep Is and Why Kids Need it. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/en/kids/not-tired.html



PERFORMANCE ANXIETY:

                                                                                            Download Article 16 - PERFORMANCE ANXIETY

References:

     •  Dr P. Koeck (2017). Performance Anxiety? Retrieved from http://www.15minutes4me.com/anxiety/performance-anxiety/
     •  Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2017). Test Anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.adaa.org/living-with-anxiety/children/test-anxiety

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Child Mind Institute (2017). Tips for Beating Test Anxiety. Retrieved https://childmind.org/article/tips-for-beating-test-anxiety/
     •  Study Guides and Strategies (2017). Overcoming Test Anxiety. Retrieved from http://www.studygs.net/tstprp8.htm
     •  The Nemours Foundation (2017). Test Anxiety. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/test-anxiety.html#


PARENTAL ALIENATION:

                                                                                             Download Article 17 - PARENTAL ALIENATION

References:

     •  Unknown (2017). Parental Alienation. Retrieved from https://legaldictionary.net/parental-alienation/
     •  Preller, B (2017). Parent or Narcissist? Parental Alienation. Retrieved from http://www.divorcelaws.co.za/family-law-blog/parent-or-narcist-parental-alienation
     •  Kruk, E. (2017). The Impact of Parental Alienation on Children.
         Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/co-parenting-after-divorce/201304/the-impact-parental-alienation-children
     •  Divorce Help & Family Divorce Information (2017). The Effects and Consequences of Parental Alienation.
         Retrieved from http://www.keepyourchildsafe.org/divorce/effects-of-parental-alienation.html

Links to more information on this topic:

     •  Parental Alienation (2010). Malicious Mother Syndrome. Retrieved from http://www.parentalalienation.com.au/node/11
     •  CoParenting South Africa (2017). Parents Who Have Successfully Fought Parental Alienation Syndrome. Retrieved from  https://www.coparenting.co.za/article.php?art_id=158
     •  Opperman, J (2017). Don’t be an Alienating Parent. Retrieved from http://www.womansdivorce.com/alienating-parent.html
©Copyright 2018 Christine Slabbert
HPCSA Number:       PS 0119733
Practice Number:     0524980
©Copyright 2018 Christine Slabbert
HPCSA Number:       PS 0119733
Practice Number:     0524980
RESILIENCE: THE BASICS:

                                                                                              Download Article 18 - RESILIENCE: THE BASICS

References:

 
Spacey, J. (November, 2017). 9 Examples of Personal Resilience. Retrieved online from https://simplicable.com/new/personal-resilience
 
About Kids Health (2018). Resilience. Retrieved online from http://www.aboutkishealth.ca/En/HealthAZ/FamilyandPeerRelations/BehaviourManagement/Pages/Resilience.aspx

Links to more information on this topic:

 
  Psychology Today (2018). Resilience. Retrieved from www.psychologytoday.com/basics/resilience
 
  American Psychological Association (2018). The Road to Resilience. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcentre/road-resilience.aspx